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Keennee Gardaran?: Gafafkii Gumaystaha & Gobonimadoonka

Curiskii ku guuleystay kaalinta saddexaad ee Tartan-curiseedka Aw Jaamac ee Taariikhda

  • HORDHAC:

Dagaalkii dheeraa ee Darawiishta, socday mudda gaaraysa rubac qarni, 1899kii ilaa iyo 1921dii ee uu hoggaaminayay Sayyid Maxamed Cabdille Xassan, waxaa lagu qiyaasay ilaa iyo 200,000 qof ku dhinteen, dhul ay degaan dad tiradooda lagu qiyaasay waagaasi ilaa iyo saddex milyan.[1] Dagaaladdu markii ay ugu kululaayeen, 1906kii ilaa iyo 1909kii kaliya ayaa waxaa lagu qiyaasay dadkii dhintay 30,000. Waxaa lagu gunaanaday dilkaasi sababihiisu ahaa Ingiriiskii oo xeebaha u noqday isla markaasna hubeeyay shacabkii ama “friendly tribes”, kuna fasaxay Darawiishta iska difaacaan.[2]  Sidoo kale Dagaalkii Kowaad ee Dunida, ee dhexmaray reer Yurub, laga bilaabo 1914kii ilaa iyo 1918kii, waxaa lagu tira koobay 38 milyan qof ku dhinteen, 7 milyan baa ahaa shacabkii ku dhintay dagaalkaasi.[3] Gaar ahaan markii Ingiriisku ugu darneed ayaa waxaa ka dhintay 57,470. Maalin kaligeed ayaa waxaa ka dhintay tiro gaaraysa 19,240.[4] Sababha dhaliyay dagaaladaasi waxay aheed dhulbaalirsi. (Fiiri Jaantus 01).

Meeshaasi waxaa ku cad in Ingiriiska iyo Yurubta kale ay six arxan daro ah isku laayeen, dagaaladaasi oo ku fiday caalamka oo idil. Waxaa labadaas dagaal ay wadaagaan, aan ka aheen wakhtiga (samanka), in ay yihiin kuwo lagu tilmaamay dagaalo ahaa dhul isku-fidin iyo hanti-dhicid. Ingiriiska oo xarun dhexe ku lahaa Cadan, Yaman ayaa dhulka Soomaalida u joogay in ay; b) Xarunta Cadan u helaan xoolo loo diro, xoolahaasi oo Soomaalidu aad u dhaqan jirtay, iyo, t) in ay Ingiriisku ka ilaaliyaan dawlaha kale ee Yurub oo rabay in ay isku fidiyaan Afrika, gaar ahaan Geeska Afrika “The Scramble in the Horn of Africa”. Sida Ingiriiska oo dhul balaarsi caalamka ku haystay wadamo badan ayaa la suurta gali wayday wadaad iyo waranlayaashiisa in ay ka hor istaagaan mashruucyadoodii imbaratoorka ahaa. Ingiriiska oo is cajabiyay ayaa waxay u bixiyeen Sayyidka “Mad Mullah”, oo ah micnaheeda; Wadaadkii Waalnaa”. Qoraalkan kooban waxa aan rabaa in aan ku falanqeeyo ma Waalnaa Wadaadku, mise aflagaado malayacni ah weeye?

  • WADAADKII WAASHAY:

Haddii aad akhrisay warbixinadii saraakiishii Ingiriiska u diri jireen London ama Cadan, iyo sidoo kale madaxdii Ingiriiska waxaa kuu cadaanaya in Sayyidka u arkayeen wadaad wax soo bartay, kuna soo noqday carigiisii, kaasoo doonahayay in uu fidiyo dacwadiisa[5]. Laakiin waxay badankood sheegayaan in markii uu heli waayay Jameeca raacda in uu dagaal iyo dil u kacay. Kabtan Summers, tamthiil ahaan ayaa leh in uu Sayyidku “magaciisa meel sare gaarsiiyay markii ay ku timaado aqoonta Diinta” [6] Sidoo kale sargaalkii Hamilton ayaa yiri in uu Sayyidku markii uu ka soo noqday Xajka “rabay dareenka dadkiisu Diinta u badalo/cuseeybiyo!”.[7] Mid kale ayaa sidoo kale yiri in Sayyidku “ahaa mid u qiirooda Diintiisa…kaas oo kasoo horjeeday Diinta oo si fudud looga tago.”[8]

Sidaas darteed saraakiishaasi laftirkood ayaa qiraya in ay adag tahay Diinta la dhaqan galiyo haddii gumaysi gaaleed ku maamulo adiga iyo dalkaaga. “Waa wax adag in aad Dacwada Diintaada fidisid sidii Nabiga [ﷺ] amray adiga oo gumaysi ku hoos nool, isla markaana wax xun ka sheegin gumaystaha.”[9] Laakiin amaantaasi waxay ku hakatay wakhti yar. Maxaa yeelay waagaasii Sayyidku wuxuu ku mashquulay dacwada islaamka iyo aasaaska madaarista iyo fidinta Dariiqada Sheekhiisa ee aheed Saalixiyada. Waxaa waagaasi caadada aheed wadaadkii ogalaada walaayada ama go’aanka gumaystaha in loo ogalaa maamuul gaar ah oo xor uu uyahay. Laakiin markii uu diiday ama dood ka soo jeediyay maamuulka ama qaabka gumaystaha wax u maamuusayay ayaa waxaa la bilaabay dacaayaddii aheed “Mad Mullah”[10], ama Wadaadkii Waalnaa.

Markii ugu horaysay oo la sheegay qoraal xusaya weedha “Mad Mullah” waa qoraalkii Consul-General J. Hayes-Sadler, maamulihii British Somaliland asaga oo u qoraya warbixin Raysal Wasaaraha Salisbury ee Biritan; “Wadaadkii wuxuu la waashay Diin”[11] Laakiin su’aashu waa maxaa keenay in ay dhahaan waa “Wadaad Waashay”? Sida uu sheegayo Major H. G. C. Swayne, caskari saldhigiisu ahaa British Somaliland ayaa yiri; “Asaga [Sayyidka] iyo wadaado iyo Suufiyiin kale ayaa mashquulan dacaayad (propaganda) lagu dhaawacayo go’aankeena”[12] sidoo kale qaarkood kale waxay meel walba ku qoreena ama xuseen in “Waalida” u keentay “Dhaawac ka soo gaaray madaxa”[13]

  • KEENNEE WAALAN

Diin-Raacaha waxbaa si ka ah bay aamin sanaayeen. Maxaa yeelay, sidee macquul ku noqon kartaa in wadaad kitaab raac ah siyaasad caalami ah la soo faro galo! Waayo reer Yurub, waa iyagii wadaad iyo siyaasad kala soocay. Kaba sii daran mid duur iyo Hawd ku nool in ay fahmaan maamuul caalami ah oo hoggaamiya caalamka boqolkiiba todobaatan, kaba daran. Sidaas darteed dhaq-dhaqaaqii Darawiishta baa u badneed mid ah “Guerrilla Warfare”, ama Duur-Ka-Dagaalan.[14] Dagaalka noocaasi ah, nasiib daro waxaa mar walba dhibta ugu wayn ay soo gaartaa shacabka. Shacabkaasi oo badanaa dega deegaamooyinka ay maamulaan gumaystaha ama kan u dagaalamaya gobonimadoonka. Labadaasi dhinac eed la’aan ma ahan. Maxaa yeelay waxaa ku cad taariikhda, ama maanta ama tii shalay, in barakaca iyo qaxootinimada u bataan shacabka.

Waxaa hubaal ah aqoon yahano tiro badan in ay ku tilmaameen Sayyidka iyo Darawiishtiisa kuwa xad-dhaaf iyo dhiig daadin badnaa. In uu ahaa wadaad ah dagaal yahan ‘Militant’.[15] Waxaa ay xusayaan qaarkood, sida Dr. Baadiyoow, oo sheegaya in uu xagjirnimadaasi ku ekeen la dagaalanka gumaystaha, baa ku doodaya in uu Sayyidku dhinaca diinta rabay mas’uul ka noqdo.[16] Dr. Baadiyoow wuxuu ku eedanayaa Soomaalida guud, gaar ahaana kuwii danbe in ay Sayyidka hal meel oo qurxoon taariikhda ka xuseen. Wuxuu yiri; “Sayyid Maxamed go’aamadiisii fiicnaa ayay qurxoonaysiiyeen dhaqdhaqaaqii Soomaalinimo (Somali nationalists) sidii ay u abuuri lahayeen fikir ah taariikh suuban, iyo sawiro qurxoon oo ku salaysan geesiyaal iyo sheekooyin-khayaali ah.”

Waloow uu Dr Baadiyoow uu ku saxsan yahay in Darawiishtu iyo Sayyidku xumaan faleen, laakiin sax ilama ahan in “Dhaqdhaqaaqii Soomaalinimo” buun-buuniyeen fiicnaanshadda Sayyidka/Darawiishta. Maxaa yeelay qoraagii ugu khabiirsanaa arimaha Darawiishta ee Aw-Jaamac Cumar Ciise, waxaa ku cad in uu soo aruuriyay gabayaddii, go’aamadii, dagaalkii, dilkii, iwm oo ay sameeyeen ama ku ficiltimeen Darawiishta iyo Sayyidku.[17]

Sidoo kale saraakiishii Ingiriiska ayaa sheegaya in uu Sayyidku arxan daro ku dilay dad ay ka mid yihiin dumar iyo ciyaal. Major H. A. Rayne oo ahaa xaakim fadhiyay Zaylac ayaa yiri in uu arkay “dumar iyo ciyaal badan oo dalbaday in aan aqbalno…kuwaas oo yiri guryahoodii in ay burburiyeen Darawiishtii, sidoo kale ay xoolahoodii ka dhaceen, ragoodiina dileen, kuwaas oo amar fulinayay Sayyidku amray.” [18] Sidoo kale Swayne ayaa leh “waxaan arkay arxaan daro…oo ah caadaddii Wadaadkii Waalnaa (Mad Mullah)”.[19]

Laakiin taariikhda oo ah ilbiriqsi na dhaafay oo mid maanta ku eegno indhaha casrigan, baa ah in aad ilbiriqsi kale eegi kartid si kale oo ka duwan sidii hore. Tamthiil ahaan Ingiriiska ayaa si arxaan daro ah u dukheeyay deegaamo ay dagaan dad fara badan. Saddex usbuuc oo laga bilaabo 21dii Janaayo ee 1920 ayay dayuuradihii Z Force dukheeyeen wadankii ugu horeeyay Afrika ee Soomaaliya, gaar ahaan Taleex. (Fiiri Jaantuus #03). Waxaa ku baxay kharash gaaraya £77,000 pounds, oo u dhigma maanta £3 milyan iyo bar, markaas ayay ku magacaabeen “Dagaalkii ugu raqiisanaa”[20] Xisaabta maba ugu jirin dilkii iyo hantidii ay khasaariyeen. Sidoo kale waxay la wareegeen xoolo aad u fara badan. Sidoo kale saraakiishii Ingiriiska oo la taagneed Itoobiya, sida Hanbury-Tracy ayaa sheegaya dilka, dhicitaanka, kufsiga iyo arxan darada loo geestay Soomaalida xoolo raacatada ah oo aan waxba ku darsan Sayyidka iyo Darawiishtiisa, kuwaas oo caado ahaan daga Ogaadeeniya.[21] Waa wax ay ka taliyeen Ingiriisku.

  • WAALIDU WAA WAD LA’AAN

Waxaa hubaal ah haddii uu ahaan lahaa Sayyidku wax waalan ama mid nolosha caskartiisa iyo saraakiishiisa galiya khatar in uu ku dhaqaaqi lahaa falalka caadada u ah dadka waalan. Waxaa ka mid ahaa go’aanka uu qaatay mar ingiriisku ku qaaday duulaankii  saddexaad (Third British Expedition)[22] in uu Sayyidku wareejiyay saldhigii Darawiishta iyo caskar gaaraysa 12,000 aan ku jirin wixii xaasas, ciyaal, xoolo ahaa ay wateen. Waxay kor mareen xaruntii Ingiriiska ee Buuxoodle, oo saldhig u aheed Caskar farabadan. Wuxuu qoray sargaalkii R.P. Cobbold asaga oo warbixin siinaya Koloneel Davidson oo xarunta Sheekh fadhiyay “Wadaadkii [the Mullah] wuxuu isticmaalay fursaddii roobkii da’ay, markaas ayuu caskartiisii u raray Nugaal, asaga oo ka doorbiday in aan la ogaan meesha uu ku sugan yahay. 8dii bisha Yuunyo [1903] ayaa waxaa iska horyimid caskarteenii (scouts) joogay Haggardheer iyo 150 caskartii Darwiishta, maalintii ku xigtayna waxaa la jaray silig ilaa iyo 6 maayl oo ah telegrafkeenii, afar meel oo kala duwan. Maalintii ku xigtay waxaan maqalnay in reerkii Wadaadka (the Mullah) iyo koox wayn kor mareen xarunteena Buuxoodle.”[23]

Sidoo kale sargalkaasi Cobbold ayaa moodaa in uu aad iyo aad u cajabiyay maanka iyo nidaamka uu Sayyidku caskar badan iyo xoola badan ku dhex maray. Cobbold oo ahaa mid la socday caskar Itoobiyaan ah oo dagaal ku qaaday Darawiishta ayaa meel kale ku leh “Wuxuu [Sayyidka] gooyay jidkeena, 10 maayl wax u jira xarunteena. Waxaa macquul ah in uu ka war hayay dhacdooyinka dagaallka ka socday Koonfurta Afrika, maxaa yeelay wuxuu ku qariyay dhaqdhaqaaqiisa labo koox oo ah caskartiisa [Darawiishta] kuwaas oo u kala diray labo meel, ayaga oo qas iyo dagaal badan ku qaaday wixii noo joogay. Sidaas darteed cidna ma ogaan Karin meesha uu joogo ama u jeedo, asaga iyo xoolo aad u fara badan, tirade xoolahaasi oo la qiyaasi karin, maxaa yeelay labo maalmood bay ku qaadatay in ay dhaafaan hal goob.”[24]

Laakiin Sargaalkii Swann oo ahaa kii xukumay xarumaha Barbara-Buuxoodle ayaa sheegay in uusan ka horimaan karin caskartaasi faraha badneed, asaga oo og in uusan haysan caskar ku duuli karta, kana gacan sareen karin. Maxaa yeelay wuxuu yiri haddii uu saas samayn lahaa wuxuu “khatar galin karaa caskarta iyo xarumaha Ingiriiska.”[25]

  • GUNAANAD:

Sida aan horay u soo sheegay, waxaa ku cad taariikhda dagaaladda in la istcmaalo dacaayad (propaganda) si sawirka guud ee cadawga loo xumeeyo. Waxaad fiirisaa taariikhda dagaaladdii gobonimadoonkii Skotland[26], Aarland[27], Maraykanka[28], iwm. Kulligood bilawgii waxeey isticmaaleen ‘Guerrilla Warfare’. Waxaa hubaal ah kuwii ku dhaqaaqay la dagaalanka ciidanka xoogga badan, in aysan suurta gali karin in ay ku wajehaan ciidankaasi sida caadada dagaalka ah, oo ah in ay iska horyimadaan.

Gumaystuhu iyo gobonimadoonku way wada isticmaaleen dacaayad. Fiiri gabayadii sayyidka iyo waraaqihiisii uu u diray shacabka Ingiriiska. Asaga oo leh “dhulkani waa dhulkaygii, adigu maxaad u dhiman?” Sidoo kale waa asagii isticmaali jiray ama tirin jiray gabayadii uu kaga uu argagaxisada ku ridayay Soomaalida la safneed Ingiriiska, Talyaaniga, iyo Itoobiyaanka. Marka su’aasha baa ah, maxaa mudan taariikhiga maanta, ama cilmi baaraha? Ma in uu soo gudbiyaa wixii la yiri asaga/ayada oo aan ku fiirin il miisaan leh, mise sidii qiiro jaceel/naceeb ku soo guuriyo wixii la yiri?

Waa maya. Ogoow dhaqdhaqaaq gobonimadoon ah ma jiro aan gaf galin, dad si khalad ah u layn, ama hanti iyo dhul dhicin. Laakiin waxaa hubaal ah, boqolkiiba sagaashan in maanta bulshad walba il fiican ku xusto dagaaladii ay qaadeen kuwoodii ahaa gobonimodoon. Mana ahan maanta in aan ku mashquulno ereyada amaba aflagaadada gumaystaha, anaka oo difaaceenee cadiifadda qabiilka ama ehelka.[29]

Haddaan Waayey calan lay nashiro, tan iyo Nayroobi,
Miyaan waayay naamuus janniyo, daalac iyo naasil?
Haddaan waayay Ciidoo naqliyo, inaan Nugaal daaqo,
Miyaan waayay neefaan xarbada, naallo ugu fuulo?
Haddaan Waayay ruux iga naxoo, ii nasabad sheegta,
Miyaan waayay naxariis Alliyo, Nebiga jaahiisa?

  • TIXRAAC:

 

[1] Said S. Samatar, Oral Poetry and Somali Nationalism (Cambridge: Cambridge University

[2] Sir G. H. Summers, “Memorandum on Political Affairs in Somaliland,” University of Oxford, Rhodes House Library, Mss Afr.s.905 (1925), b.2.

[3] British Army statistics of the Great War”. http://www.longlongtrail.co.uk.  Soo xigsaday 18 Janaayo 2017.

[4] “The Battle of the Somme”, ama dagaalkii Somme, oo weerar Ingiriis iyo Faransiis ahaa, bishii Yuulyo ilaa iyo Nofeembar 1916kii ayaa aheed markii ugu darned, gaar ahaan maalintii koowda Yuulyo. Fiiri marjici kore.

[5] Waxaa la sheegay in waraaqaha badankood ay ku baaba’een Dagaalkii dhexmaray Ingiriiska iyo Talyaaniga. Hadii aad rabtid in aad wax ka ogaatid taasi, fiiri; C. R. Barnes, “The Ethiopian State and its Somali Periphery, 1888–1948” (Ph.D. aan wali la daabicin, University of Cambridge, 2001).

[6] “established a great reputation as a religious leader” Sir G. H. Summers, “Memorandum on Political Affairs in Somaliland,” University of Oxford, Rhodes House Library, (1925), b.1.

[7] “with the intention of reviving the religious spirit of his people” Angus Hamilton, Somaliland (London: Hutchinson & Company, 1911).

[8][8] Francis Prevost-Battersby, Richard Corfield of Somaliland (London: Edward Arnold, 1914),

[9] Halkuun b.32

[10] Weedha “Mullah” waxaa laga keenay Saraakiishii Ingiriiska oo laga soo wareejiyay Indiya oo ah asalkeeda Faarsi ama Turki, micnaheedu tahay “Wadaad”

[11] “Fiiri Said S. Samatar, Oral Poetry and Somali Nationalism. b. 184. Ingiriiska ayaa ahaa: “the Mullah has gone religious mad.”

[12] Maj. H. G. C. Swayne, Seventeen Trips through Somaliland and a Visit to Abyssinia (London: Rowland Ward Ltd., 1903) b. viii.

[13] “Nomad” and “Forgotten Pages—The Mad Mullah of Somaliland,” United Empire,

Journal of the Royal Colonial Institute 16, no. 2 (1925) b. 79.

[14] “Guerrilla warfare” micnaheedu waa istaraatiijig ah Duur-Ka-Dagaalan, oo koox yar oo ah caskari, ama dad shacab ah kula diriraan Caskar-Dawladeed ama militeeri nidaamsan kuwaas oo isticmaalaya; Duur-gal, duul-gal iyo gadaal-noqodo, mugdi-u-dhac, toogasho, iwm. Hadafka ayaa ah in aan Cadawga si toos ah loola diririn taas oo dhalin karta in lagaa raayo xoog yarid darteed.

[15] Fiiri Dr. Cabdiraxman Maxamed Cabdulaahi “Baadiyoow” maqaalkiisa; Islamic Militancy in the History of Somalia, oo tamthiil ahaan sheegaya dilka iyo dagaalka uu ku qaaday Sayyidka tariiqooyinka qaarkood ahaayeen kuwo arxaan daro ah.

[16] “Sayyid Maxamed intii uusan soo gaarin Waqooyi Soomaali, waxaa jirijirtay Dandarawiyyah Tariiqa, oo ka farcantay Axmadiyyah magaalooyinka Sheekh iyo Xaaxi…Sayyid Maxamed Cabdulle Xasan wuxuu sheegtay in uu yahay kan dhaxlay Taariiqadaasi kaligiis, sidaas darteed in ay labadaa deegaan ka tagaan kuwa jooga, markaas ayay diideen. Go’aankaasi markii ay qaadan waayeen ayuu Sayyidku iyo Darawiishtiisu gubeen xarumahaasi.” Halkuun

[17] . Aw Jaamac Cumar Ciise, Taariikhdii Daraawiishta iyo Sayid Maxamad Cabdulle Xasan. (Mogadishu: Wasaaradda Hiddaha iyo Tacliinta Sare, Akadeemiyaha Dhaqanka, 1976)

[18] Maj. Henry A. Rayne, Sun, Sand and Somalis: Leaves from the Notebook of a District Commissioner in British Somaliland (London: H. F. G. Witherby, 1921) b.200

[19] Halkuun b.216

[20] Baker, Anne (2003). From Biplane to Spitfire. Pen And Sword Books. bb. 161–162

[21] Major A.H.C. Hanbury-Tracy, Expedition from Abyssinia to Somaliland (1901); ed. Frederic A. Sharf & Richard Pankhurst, Tsehai Publishers, USA.

[22] ‘British Expedition’ waxaa laga wadaa dulaamadii waaweynaa ee lagu qaaday Darawiishta. Afar duulaan ayaa loo kala qaybiyaa;
– Dulaankii 1aad (First British Expedition); 1900 – 1901: Markii Sayyidku ku duulay Itoobiyaanka oo joogay Jigjiga Maarso 1900, kana xoog batay, ayaa Ingiriisku la midoobay caskarta Itoobiyaanka. Labadaasi ayaa waxay hoggaaminayeen 17,000 caskar kuna duuleen Darawiishta 1901kii. Darawiishta markii ogaadeen xoogga wayn ayay waxay u gudbeen Bari.

– Dulaankii 2aad (Second British Expedition); Febraayo ilaa iyo Yuunyo 1903: Ingiriiska ayaa doorkan la heshiiyay Itaaliyaankii fadhiyay Hobyo. Waxaa ay go’aamiyeen in Ingiriisku isticmaali karo degaanka Hobyo iyo Caskartii Boqorka Keanadiid. Itaaliyaanka, Boqorkii Keendiid iyo Ingiriiska intii ay isku mashquul sanaayeen ayaa Sayyidka wuxuu ku duulay deegaamo kala duwan, meeshaasna ka barakiciyay.
– Dulaankii 3aad (Third British Expedition); Janaayo ilaa iyo May 1904: Ingiriiska ayaa goortan badalay Generaalka hoggaaminay caskrta oo lagu wareejiyay Generaal Charles Egerton, kaas oo go’aamiyay in Ingiriiska, Itaaliyaanka iyo Itoobiyaanku saddex meel hal mar ku duulaan Darawiishta. Asaga iyo caskartiisa ayaa ku duulay Darawiishta dhinaca dhulka, Itaaliyaankiina dhinaca badda oo doomahooda ka dukheeyay, Itoobiyaankiina dhinacooda. Markii Darawiishta laga qaatay dhul wayn ayaa la siiyay balan ah in uu Sayyidku u carari karo Carbaha! Wuu diiday.
– Dulaankii 4aad (Fourth British Expedition); Nofeembar 1919 ilaa iyo Janaayo 1920: Intii Ingiriisku ku mashquulnaa Dagaalkii 1aad ee Adduunka ayaa waxay Darawiishtu dhaawac u geeyeen kana qaateen dhul wayn gumaystihii. Sidaa darteed ayaa British Airforce, iyo British Somaliland Camel Corps ku duuleen Taleex iyo xaruma kale ee saldhig u ahaa Darawiishta. Saddex usbuuc oo ah dukheen iyo dagaal culus ka dib ayaa la dhabar jabiyay Sayyidka iyo Darawiishiisii, ka dibna waa carareen.
Fiiri haddii aad rabtid macluumaad saa’id ah Dvine Madness ee Cabdi Sheekh Cabdi, Oral Poetry and Somali Nationalism ee Saciid Sheekh Samatar iwm.

[23] R.P. Cobbold to Colonel Davidson, Sheikh, 4 July 1903; Private papers of Lord Roberts, File No. 7101, R28/6, the National Army Museum, Chelsea (London).

[24] Official History of the Operations in Somaliland 1901-04, Great Britain. War Office. General Staff, bb.190-1.

[25] Halkuun b.91. Sidoo kale fadlan fiiri: Sheik-ʻAbdi, ʻAbdi (1993). Divine Madness: Moḥammed ʻAbdulle Ḥassan (1856–1920). Zed Books. b.139

[26] Waxaad akhrisaa taariikhda Sir William Wallace (dh. Oogost 1305) oo ahaa gobonimadoonkii Skotland, kaas oo sided sano dagaal ku waday Gumaysigii Ingiriiska. Akhri The. “Sir William Wallace | Scottish hero”. Britannica.com. Ka soo xigtay; 2017-01-30.

[27] ‘The Irish War of Independence’ ama ‘Anglo-Irish War’ ama ‘Tan War’ wuxuu dagaal ah ‘Guerrilla War’ laga bilaabo 1919 ilaa iyo 1921, una dhaxeeyay  IRA oo ah ‘Irish Republican Army’ iyo Cidaamada amniga ee Ingiriiska. Ilaa iyo 1990meeyinkii wuu socday dagaalkiisa, marna qabooba marna kor u kaca.

[28] ‘The American Revolutionary War’ ama ‘American War of Independence’ wuxuu socdaylaga bilaabo 1775 ilaa iyo 1783, oo ah sideed sano. Dagaalkaasi badankiis wuxuu u dhaxeeyay Shacabka Mareekanka iyo Ingiriiska. Waxaa markii danbe caawiyay Mareekanka Faransiiska iyo kuwa kale oo isku badashay dagaal caskari casri ah. Laakiin markii hore wuxuu ahaa dagaal ‘Guerrilla War’.

[29] Fiiri cinwaanada qaarkood sida; ‘Divine Madness’ ee Cabdi Sheekh Cabdi, ama “Sooyaal” Ina Cabdule Xasan ma Sheekh buu ahaa mise ee Cabdiraxman C. Faarax “Barwaaqo” iwm.

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